UK government ban on Pornography

There is a great chance that some of the most popular websites could be banned in Britain. This is after it has emerged that the UK government intends to filter any form of “non-conventional” pornography. This push by the government is currently facing stiff opposition especially by free speech activists.

This bill which is being discussed would see the UK government being strict on sites that host adult content. The government will put in place strict porn filters and will require such sites to verify users’ ages; failure to which they will risk being blocked in Britain.

As if that is not enough, the government may go a notch higher to completely ban “non-conventional” porn once and for all. According to The Guardian, this ban could affect all manner of adult content ranging from urination to menstruation.

This is rather confusing. Right? How will this be implemented? Currently, the BBFC-British Board of Film Classification does the vetting of all adult content and certifies such adult content that are commercially sold. To manage this, it has put in place strict rules and guidelines that clearly indicate what is allowed and not allowed. If your content is rated as unsuitable, it will be illegal for you to sell the content.

This same board (BBFC) will oversee the implementation of this law. It will be tasked with the duty of monitoring online content. The board will use the same standards it uses to authenticate DVD contents. If your online content is deemed unsuitable, you will not be allowed to upload it online; failure to which your website will be completely blocked.

What is shocking about this ban is that it is not taking into consideration that such adult content are not illegal to watch for adults who have consented to watch. A professor at Durham University takes this regulation of such material that is not criminal as an act of madness. He continues to note that regulating menstruation and urination contents would lessen our focus on the real harmful evils such as child sexual abuse and sexual violence.

Will this ban work?

There are certain elements that are still not clear on how this ban will be enforced. This is because; the internet has both porn sites and non-porn sites intertwined such that you wouldn’t easily notice a site that shows pornographic content.

Blocking some sites that solely portray adult content is quite easy. But blocking sites that mix pornographic contents with non-pornographic contents is technically difficult. This raises concern on how such a ban will be enforced on such websites. Let us look at some examples:

· Reddit allows user to create a subsection(subreddits) that may allow you to link to pornographic sites.

· Tumblr, a blogging site which is owned by yahoo, has a big number of adult content.

· 4chan which is a popular imageboard has adult content forums. Here, pornographic and non- pornographic content are shared freely.

· Twitter is also reluctant on postings that portray nudity as opposed to Facebook that is rather strict.

As seen above, these sites have millions of users but they have different sections and communities that post adult content freely. So it is not possible for the government to block Twitter and Reddit in Britain because of these small groups.

In addition, it would be next to impossible for this giant websites to track each post posted on their platform unless somebody reports such posts. BBFC on the other hand might not be able to accurately keep a record of all these subsections and groups that are sharing adult content. Even if they traced such users they wouldn’t block such big and vibrant websites in Britain.

Despite the upcoming ban on pornography, people are still curious finding out about how to get into porn.

Age Verification

BBFC will definitely approve some sites that it host “conventional” adult content. However, they will require the site to verify the users’ ages before it allows Brits to access the website. Failure to do this will lead to the site being completely blocked.

In the internet, some reputable websites don’t verify their users’ ages. For example, Reddit and 4Chan have no form of registration nor do they verify the ages of their users. We are not certain whether these sites will make significant changes in time to avoid being blocked immediately the ban becomes enforced.

Also, digital rights activists are pointing out another important aspect on privacy. They are arguing that registering Brits who may want to watch adult content is quite demeaning and may invade on other people’s privacy. Having heard of reports of passwords being leaked on giant adult sites such as Adult Friend Finder, it is important that the government reconsiders this verification process.

Another reason why this porn filter is subject to fail is that technology can be manipulated. No filter is ever perfect. Internet savvy youths will also take advantage of loopholes and have access to such websites without being detected. They can use proxies and VPNs to bypass the porn filter. Unfortunately, adults who follow the law will have to pass through various verification processes to be able to access adult content whose choices will be extremely limited.

The bright side of this Digital Economy Bill is that it is not yet law. It is at the report stage hence it can still be amended. Anti-censorship activists are following up keenly t ensure some sections of this bill are amended. However, until the amendment is done, there is a risk that legal adult content may be completely banned. This leaves big websites blindly calculating their next move.

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Global Political Forecasting

Political forecasting can be narrowly defined as the practice of predicting the outcomes of elections. This includes predicting which political party or individual will win and the policies they will implement once they are in office. However, political forecasting in the broader sense refers to the predicting of events that may affect the political systems of a country and their structures as well as the organization of political power. Global political forecasting is therefore an important factor in predicting the political atmosphere of countries around the world and how these political outcomes reflect the will of the people. This is important as it helps in predicting the political and economic stability of a nation for humanitarian purposes in case of civil war and from an economic standpoint for investors.

Since the stakes of global politics are so high and involve so many stakeholders, the need for accurate algorithms and models for global political forecasting is on the rise. The best models have high rates of accuracy in order to be effective in the predicting of outcomes so that players can prepare adequately for them and in some cases take action to change the outcomes if they are not only unfavorable but also harmful. For instance, humanitarian groups may take action to prevent a country from falling into genocide while a government may step in to prevent a region they have invested in from civil war to protect their investments.

The following databases have been used in global political forecasting to predict various outcomes. Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone and Integrated Conflict Early Warning System cover all political events while Manifesto Project Database covers election performance and political manifestos and International Crisis Behavior Project covers international crises. Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project and Uppsala Conflict Data Program/Peace Research Institute of Oslo cover armed conflicts. All these databases with the exception of ICEWS are publicly available and are updated regularly. There are also different databases that cover different political areas such as terrorism, suicide attacks, atrocities and militarized interstate disputes and even a database that covers hate speech called Hatebase. Some have been in use since the 1900s such as International Crisis Behavior Project that was launched in 1918.

These databases have been effective in predicting political trends and events around the world, especially events that influence the economy and political atmosphere of countries. They use mass data both structured and unstructured, learn from them and use them to predict future reactions. They study factors that have led to past events such as the causes of genocide, civil war or politically-charged situations like coups. Variables like conflict in neighboring countries or regions and political or economic discrimination are also included in the study to ensure that the results are as accurate as possible. Current political trends are also used in global political forecasting to predict similar situations such as the outcome of elections where other candidates with similar characteristics have been elected into office when it seemed unlikely. If such a break from history has become a trend, then it will be considered a factor in such forecasting.

A look at the economy and government relations

The relationship between government and business has always been a complex and often antagonistic one. Sometimes the lines between the economy generated by big business and the economy fostered by government become so blurred it is hard to see where the public good lies. To understand how politics and business shape the world we need to look at three political economy theories.

The Free Market

The free-market political theory can be described as an idea that proposes a hands-off form of capitalism where there is little or no formal ties between the government and business. It assumes that the public good aspect of a free market political economy is synonymous with economic efficiency and the improvement in living standards. It argues that when the buyer and seller decisions are undisturbed we get better, cheaper products for more people. Cheap, high-quality goods translates into better standards of living.


Socialism proposes economic equality for all. Socialism attempts to keep the exploitative power of business over the government and its people. Socialists see the structure of a capitalist economy as one that requires those who own capital to exploit the working class for profit. According to socialism a government that is for the people acts in the best interest of the people by taking control of business and the economy on behalf of the people.

The Keynes approach

The economist, John Maynard Keynes argued that it would be inefficient for governments to control business and that control like that would lower the overall standard of living. Keynes also argued that a free market approach creates inequalities and contradictions that will lead to unstable socioeconomic situations. His approach advocates for governments to push business into social desired situations. For instance, government can use monetary policies to increase the supply of credit, create incentives for investments and stimulate economic growth.


A lot of Keynes’ ideas were used to deal with the great depression in the 1930s. Government created infrastructure projects in order to promote new growth and stabilize the economy when free market systematic ideals failed.

The current situation

There are two schools of thought on the subject of the World Economy Government Relations. One school argues that government interference in wealth creation hinders commerce and lowers the standard of living. The other paints business as being a predator that could cause mayhem by exploiting workers and consumers if the government does not control it.

When the subprime mortgage market collapsed in 2007/8 and the banking sector had to be rescued, it created a sense of anger towards the elite and caused much frustration it led to a drop in tax revenues and a rise in budget deficits forcing the government to be a little less nice to the wealthy. The government introduced strict regulations for banks and tried to crack down on tax dodgers and tax havens. That is all and good, but there is some danger in antagonizing big business that certain governments are weary off.

Governments are realising that they need business to drive economic growth, create jobs and ensure that they can pay their way in the world, on the other hand, for businesses to do their part they need governments to provide the legal systems, the human capital, the infrastructure and the security to enable companies to operate and get goods to market. Companies are obliged to engage with government on different levels and governments are expected to deal with social ills and protect people whilst ensuring that the environment is ideal for business to thrive. The scales do not balance each other out, but then no one ever expected the world to be perfect, it seems we have to contend ourselves with fairness.

Development of Managers’ Leadership Standards

Purpose of this article is manager of leadership and development of conceptual frameworks defiing standards for leadership standards. He qualitative research methods applied in this study are in line with these objectives. Determination of sampling methods for sampling and exception the handling chain, respectively, of participants and sampling techniques was used accordingly. The research data were collected through semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. Data obtained in the course of the research were examined on the main dimensions of leadership. According to the survey managers must have leadership regarding the qualifiation standards; accountability and evaluation, decision-making strategies, human resources development and ethical leadership, vision creation, community development and collaboration with stakeholders, management of diversity, human relationships and effective communication. The research fidings have shown that there should be a standard for training of managers in management of the main factors in the future business. The relevant departments of the company must implement the standards identifid in upbringing of good planning by business managers.The training of qualifid managers administrators must determine standards for leadership of the leadership. Each company’s focus on its property and conditions for upbringing the results as a manager said that management training should be designed for a specifi model.

Informative And Enlightening Details About Foreign Relations


All over the world countries need foreign affairs ministries and departments. This is mainly because the different countries need each others. The countries with more resources need the ones with few resources for such countries provide market for various products. On the other hand, the countries which are not very developed get assistance from the more developed nations. Because the different countries need each other they create foreign relations so that they can enhance their relationships. The countries usually send representatives in form of ambassadors and commissioners to other countries. These ambassadors and commissioners represent their countries of origin.

Importance of countries having good relationships

Through foreign affairs different countries get assistance whenever they are faced with problems. Some of the common problems include natural disasters, famine and wars amongst others. A country that has good relationship with other countries will get the necessary help from the friendly countries. The importance of this is that some problem can be overwhelming. Furthermore, good relationships amongst countries allow the citizens of the different countries to travel freely. In most parts of the world countries form trade blocks where they simplify the terms to do trade amongst the members of the different blocks. Citizens whose countries are members of various blocks are allowed to travel between the countries without many restrictions.

Enhancing foreign relations

Most countries will support other countries with an objective of improving the relationships between them. The support can be in different forms depending on the needs of different countries. However, even though different countries help other countries they try as much as possible to avoid interfering with internal affairs of the different nations. Most countries only interfere with internal affairs of other countries when problems get out of hand and the citizens start to suffer.

Challenges of foreign relations

Even if the different countries need others, some times there are issues that arise and such issues jeopardize the relationships between different countries. Some of the common challenges include political opinions where different countries have different political ideologies. This causes disagreements which usually results to the counties breaking their ties. Another main challenge is war. When a certain country gets into war with another country the relationship between the two countries is broken. Most of the times even the countries which are not directly involved in such a war take sides. As a result, the countries in different sides experience problems in their relationships. In the current days religion has also arose as a major challenge when it comes to relationships between different countries.

The future of foreign affairs

As time goes on it is expected that different counties will strengthen their relationships. This is mainly because the different countries need the help of other countries. There might be competitions and rivalries but eventually different countries are expected to create even stronger relationships. Technology is also bringing people from different parts of the world together. Nowadays it is possible to communicate easily through the various technologically oriented platforms. Furthermore, for prosperity to happen peace must be there. This means that various countries are expected to cultivate peace with other countries so that prosperity can happen. Therefore, the foreign relations between different counties in the world are expected to grow even stronger in the future.


Effect of Strategic Change on Leadership Style

Organization of internal and external opportunities and threats is evaluated and conditions can vary according to their ability, it is one of the most important way for them to survive on their competition. Nature and effectiveness of strategic issues associated with senior management of organizational response is how it commented. Manager’s role in defiing the events and developments affects current and future strategies of the organization, operation and provides an important link with its external environment. Based on this, this article studies the managers’ leadership style for to examine relationship between demographic characteristics and strategic changes in organizations managing their work. Organization of age, the study taking into account organizations’ size and ownership status, the company is more likely to perform strategic change, process-oriented accepting the leadership style of men and education level were found to be more successful than the high administrator. Results, manager of cognitive perspectives and leadership styles reflct demographic variables, show the effective realization of strategic change.